Ingredients Glossary

The International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients, abbreviated INCI, is a system of names for waxes, oils, pigments, chemicals, and other ingredients of soaps, cosmetics, and the like, based on scientific names and other Latin and English words.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Almond Oil (Sweet)

INCI Name: Prunus Amygdalus

Obtained from the seed of the Almond Tree. Main suppliers are the Mediterranean, SW Asia, China, Japan, California and Australia.

A mild, non-irritating oil that is easily absorbed by the skin leaving it soft, smooth and supple.

Aloe Vera Concentrate

INCI Name: Aloe Vera

Obtained from the whole leaf which is organically grown and cold-pressed. Main supplier is Mexico.

Is excellent as a pain reliever, antiseptic and healing agent. Consequently it is good for eczema and will help heal burns, sunburn and cuts.

Antioxidants

During normal cellular metabolism, oxygen creates damaging by-products called Free Radicals which have an increasingly bad effect on our skin as we grow older i.e. age us through creation of wrinkles.

Antioxidants protect the cells from the damage caused by Free Radicals by binding with them before they can cause the damage. Antioxidants are found in Vitamins A, C and E as well as many fruits, vegetables and oils.

Apricot Kernel Oil

INCI Name: Prunus Armeniaca

Obtained from the kernel of the Apricot fruit which contains 40-50% oil. Parts of Asia and California are the main suppliers.

A mild oil that spreads well and is easily absorbed. Excellent for dry and sensitive skin.

Astringent

A substance that stretches the skin thus easing out wrinkles and helps keep the skin looking young.

Avocado Oil

INCI Name: Persea Gratissima

Pressed from the dried fruit pulp of the Avocado Tree. Main suppliers are South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, California, West Indies and Israel.

A mild, nourishing, semi-fatty oil that is rich in vitamins. It spreads well on the skin and is absorbed quickly and thoroughly. Great for healing damaged skin.

B


Basil

INCI Name: Ocimum Basilicum

An essential oil obtained from the leaves. Main suppliers are Madagascar, Nepal and Australia.

Has a warm and spicy aroma. Helps to concentrate and is a good muscle relaxant.

Beeswax

INCI Name: Cera Flava

Is a mix of plant wax, pollen and secretion from a gland of the bee. Main reputable suppliers are found in Sweden where production is well monitored.

Beeswax gives better protection than oils and fats because of the wax content. It is absorbed slowly by the skin and doesn't block pores. Soothes irritated skin.

Benzyl Alcohol

It is a natural alcohol. Is an antibacterial agent and is used with Phenoxyethanol and Potassium Sorbate to form a gentle and eco friendly preservative.

Bergamot

INCI Name: Citrus Bergamia

An essential oil obtained from the peel. Main supplier is Italy.

Has a citrus aroma with a floral/fruity undertone.

Has a calming and uplifting quality. Very good for oily skin and acne.

Betaine 30%

INCI Name: Cocoamidopropyl Betaine

Occurs naturally in sugar but is normally obtained from Coconut Butter.

Is an Amphoretic Detergent which makes it very gentle on the skin. Is also a Secondary Detergent which means it is not strong enough to use on its own.

Has a pH value of 6-7. Produces a fine foam. 98% biodegradable.

Black Pepper

INCI Name: Piper Nigrum

An essential oil obtained from the peppercorns. Main supplier is Madagascar.

Has a delicate, sweet aroma with a floral/fruity undertone. Very good for oily skin and acne.

Is a warming oil so is used for sports massage or for muscle fatigue.

Borage Oil or Starflower

INCI Name: Borago Officinalis

Obtained from the seeds of the Borage plant (a flower with blue, star-shaped flowers hence the alternative name). The main suppliers are found throughout Europe, North Africa and North America.

Borage Oil has the highest concentration of Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA) of any oil thus making it excellent for face creams and massage oils.

C


Carrot Seed Oil

INCI Name: Daucus Carota

Pressed from the seeds. Main suppliers are India and Hungary.

Carrots are highly nutritious plants rich in vitamins (particularly Vitamin A). It is an excellent ingredient for skin care preparations because it stimulates cell growth and removes toxins. It also improves the skin by adding tone and elasticity.

Cedarwood

INCI Name: Cedrus Atlantica

An essential oil obtained from the wood. Main supplier is Morocco.

Has a woody, resinous aroma. Is an astringent on oily skin and has antiseptic properties.

Cetearyl Glycoside

INCI Name: Cetearyl Glycoside

An Emulsifier that is very ethical as it doesn't use solvents or chemicals. It is made from vegetable-based components: glucose from corn and the fatty element from coconut.

It is ideal for making light creams, lotions and conditioners as it doesn't block the skin's pores.

Cetyl Alcohol

INCI Name: Cetyl Alcohol

Obtained from Palm Kernel Oil Fatty Acid (Palmitic Acid) that has been treated with liquid gas so that the free oxygen atom has been removed.

It stabilises emulsification (Emulsifiers allow oil and water to mix) thus making creams and lotions firmer and giving them consistency. Helps make skin soft and smooth.

Chamomile Roman

INCI Name: Anthemis Nobilis

An essential oil obtained from the flowers. Main supplier is France.

Has a smooth, sweet/apple aroma. Excellent for all types of skin care.

Citric Acid

Obtained naturally from lemons but is mostly produced synthetically.

It is mainly used as an acidity/pH regulator. Mixes well with water and alcohol.

Citronella

INCI Name: Cymbopogon Winterianus

An essential oil obtained from grass. Main suppliers are Java and China.

Has a strong, sweet, lemony aroma. Is an excellent flying insect repellent.

Clary Sage

INCI Name: Salvia Sclarea

An essential oil obtained from the leaves. Main supplier is Russia.

Has a heady and euphoric aroma.

Has soothing properties and, when added to other oils, enhances their properties.

Coconut Butter

INCI Name: Cocos Nucifera

Obtained from the coconut of palm trees. The main suppliers are found in Asia.

Has a slightly sweet taste and smell. It adds body when melted into Massage Oils.

D


Dead Sea Salt

INCI Name: Sodium Chloride

Obtained from mineral salts found on the shore of the Dead Sea.

Helps relieve aches and pains and prevents stiffness after exercise. It releases toxic agents from the tissue, improves blood circulation and regulates the pH value of tissue.

Decyl Glucoside

INCI Name: Decylglucoside

Obtained from glucose in corn.

Is an Amphoretic Detergent with similar properties to Betaine.

Detergents

These are a group of chemicals with an ability to loosen and lift fats and dirt from hair and skin releasing them into the water to be rinsed away. Our bodies secrete a special oil, sebum, to prevent the skin from drying out and to provide a protective barrier. Some detergents are very powerful, they remove this protective layer along with the dirt and can upset the natural balance of the skin causing it to feel 'stretched' and dry. Skin may become cracked and sore allowing infections to develop or leading to over-sensitivity and conditions for example eczema and dermatitis. We use small quantities of the most gentle detergents available so your skin and hair are cleansed but not stripped of protection.

E


Emulsifiers

These are essential if trying to mix oil and water. Creams and lotions need oil and water to be mixed so therefore need an emulsifier added.

We use only natural emulsifiers sourced from Coconut and Corn Oils.

Essential Oils

An Essential Oil is an aromatic, concentrated, volatile liquid. Although called oils they contain no fatty substances like true oils such as Almond Oil.

Being volatile they do not create oil stains. They occur in the cellular structures of plants and are extracted by cold pressing.

The yield per plant varies widely across the plant types, hence the varying costs of essential oils.

They are used in natural perfumes, for adding fragrance to Skin Care and Natural Products, and as a basis for the extraction of Hydrosols (Flower/Herbal Waters).

Eucalyptus

INCI Name: Eucalyptus Radiata

An essential oil obtained from the leaves. Main supplier is Australia.

Has a fresh, sharp aroma. Mildly astringent. Good for inhalation as has cleansing and clearing properties.

Evening Primrose Oil

INCI Name: Oenothera Biennis

Cold pressed from the seeds. It is a dry, thin oil that is easily absorbed by the skin. Has a high content of Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA), a substance the body needs to create Prostaglandins.

It is also a good source of Omega 3 & 6 Oils.

F


Fennel (Sweet)

INCI Name: Foeniculum Vulgare

An essential oil obtained from the seeds. Main supplier is Egypt.

Has a sweet, warm, aniseed aroma. Has an effective cleansing and toning action.

Flower Waters

Synonyms are Hydrosols, Hydrolates and Herbal Waters.

These are created when essential oils are extracted by passing heated water as vapour through plant material to collect the oils. The oil is removed from the surface leaving a solution containing small quantities of oil and plant ingredients. These gentle waters retain the properties of the essential oils.

Frankincense

INCI Name: Boswellia Carterii

An essential oil obtained from the resin. Main supplier is India.

Has a slightly spicy aroma with sweet undertones. Has rejuvenating and toning properties so is excellent for mature skin. Often used in meditation as is a calming oil.

G


Geranium

INCI Name: Pelargonium Graveolens

An essential oil obtained from the leaves. Main supplier is Egypt.

Has a mix of rose and citrus aroma. Stabilises the production of Sebum (an oil from the glands of the skin).

Consequently, is good for both dry and oily skin. Also stimulates the Lymphatic System so is good for treating cellulite.

Ginger

INCI Name: Zingiber Officinale

An essential oil obtained from the root. Main supplier is India.

Has a fresh, spicy aroma. A warming and comforting oil useful for muscle fatigue.

GLA

INCI Name: Gamma Linolenic Acid

Found naturally in oils. The body needs GLA to create Prostaglandins which are needed by the skin to enable it to function properly.

Prostaglandin Deficiency causes skin to age more quickly (becomes dry and wrinkled) and become more light-sensitive. Best source is Borage Oil which has the highest concentration of GLA of any of the oils.

Glycerine E422

INCI Name: Glycerine

This is an alcohol produced during the digestion of fats. E422 contains 5-10% Glycerine and is used to retain moisture and as a softening agent. It is vegetable-based - NOT from the digestion of animal fats.

Glyceryl Monostearate

INCI Name: Glyceryl Monostearate

This is a vegetable-based Emulsifier that is very ethical as it doesn't use solvents or chemicals. It is very good for making light creams.

Grapefruit

INCI Name: Citrus Paradisi

An essential oil obtained from the peel. Main supplier is Australia.

Has a slightly sour but refreshing citrus aroma. Good for oily skin and acne. Helps break down cellulite.

Guar Gum

INCI Name: Cyamopsis Tetragonoloba

An essential oil obtained from the peel. Main supplier is Australia.

The powder used is obtained from the seeds. Main suppliers are India and Pakistan.

It is used as a thickening agent and hair conditioner.

H


Hyaluronic Acid

Hyaluronic Acid gives skin its volume and fullness. The loss of Hyaluronic Acid over time contributes to wrinkles. Consequently, this ingredient is often used in Skin Care Products.

We use a variety obtained from a bacteria-based biofermentation process and NOT from a poultry source as other varieties are.

I


INCI Name

Signifies the International System for identifying ingredients in Cosmetics. These must be used for all product identification. With plant-based raw materials the INCI Name will be the latin or chemical name of the structure. By law, cosmetic and hygienic products MUST be labelled with a list of ingredients.

INCI is an abbreviation of International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients.

J


Jasmine

INCI Name: Jasminum Grandiflorum

An essential oil obtained from the flowers. Main suppliers are Egypt and Morocco.

Has a very sweet and floral aroma. Good for sensitive and very dry skin. Is warming and uplifting.

Jojoba Oil

INCI Name: Buxus Chinensis

This oil is cold pressed from the evergreen bush seeds. Main suppliers are Arizona, California and Mexico.

It is actually a liquid wax not an oil. It has hardly any smell and is easily absorbed by the skin. It softens and protects the skin and helps it hold its moisture. Can be used on all skin types and is good for acne and eczema. It is also a good hair oil.

K


L


Lactic Acid E-270

INCI Name: Lactic Acid

Occurs naturally and is also produced in the body. E-270 has a preservative effect and is used as a pH regulator in skin-care products i.e. regulates pH in products so that they have the same pH as skin (5.5). Can also be used to make creams and soaps runnier. Is also a moisturiser.

Lavender

INCI Name: Lavendula Angustifolia

An essential oil obtained from the flowers. Main supplier is France.

Has a distinctive floral aroma. Excellent for all skin types. Used to treat mature, sunburnt, itchy skin and skin with acne.

Is an antiseptic. Also excellent as a relaxing agent (a few drops on your pillow will help you sleep) and is good for relieving stress, tension and nervousness.

Lemon

INCI Name: Citrus Limonum

An essential oil obtained from the peel. Main suppliers are Argentina, Israel and Italy.

Has a fresh citrus aroma. Good for oily skin and acne. Is an antiseptic.

Lemongrass

INCI Name: Cymbopogon Citratus

An essential oil obtained from grass. Main supplier is Sri Lanka.

Has a lemony aroma. Good as a deodoriser for the feet and is a good oil to use in a burner or to help repel insects. Not recommended to use neat on the face but is perfectly safe when distilled in a blend (as in our Grapefruit & Lemongrass range).

Lime

INCI Name: Citrus Aurantifolia

An essential oil obtained from the peel. Main supplier is Australia.

Has a sweet, fruity aroma that lingers. Often used as a general body tonic as has cleansing properties.

Loofah

INCI Name: Luffa Cylindrica

Is a vegetable, gourd-like plant of the cucumber family.

The outer layer of the plant is peeled off and the inside is de-seeded, washed and left to dry. Can then be used as an abrasive bath sponge or can be ground into flakes and used as an exfoliator in creams, gels and oils.

M


Mandarin

INCI Name: Citrus Reticulata

An essential oil obtained from the peel. Main suppliers are Argentina, Israel and Italy.

Has a soft and warm citrus aroma with a hint of floral. Good for all skin types and because of its gentleness is ideal for children and the elderly.

N


Neem Oil

INCI Name: Melia Azadirata

This oil is cold pressed from the seeds. Main suppliers are Asia, Africa, South America and Oceania.

This oil is very smelly so is only used in very small quantities in skin-care products. Has anti-fungal properties. Good for easing arthritis and sprains, bruises and cuts. Is effective in regenerating dry and sensitive skin. The Neem leaf can be used for treating eczema and psoriasis.

Both the leaf and the seeds can be harvested from the Tree without causing the tree damage. Has insecticidal properties - Neem trees are often the only types of tree left untouched by a plague of locusts.

Neroli

INCI Name: Citrus Aurantium

An essential oil obtained from the flowers of the Orange Tree. Main supplier is North Africa.

Has a warm, floral and slightly fruity aroma. Good for all skin types. Good for the complexion and excellent for the more mature skin. It is one of the most expensive and important oils used in skincare.

O


Olive Oil

INCI Name: Olea Europeae

This oil is cold pressed from the Olive Tree's ripe fruit. Main suppliers are the Mediterranean and the Southwest USA.

This oil softens and protects the skin. It also improves blood circulation.

Orange (Bitter)

INCI Name: Citrus Aurantium

An essential oil obtained from the peel.

Has a bright and refreshing aroma.

Orange (Sweet)

INCI Name: Citrus Sinensis

An essential oil obtained from the peel. Main suppliers are Argentina, Israel and Italy.

Has a sweet, warm and citrus aroma. Good for mature skin and acne. Relaxes and is good for relieving tension and stress.

P


Palm Kernel Oil

INCI Name: Elaeis Guineensis

Palm seed of the Oil Palm.

This oil is a solid, soft wax that has a high content of Lauric Acid which is ideal for using in washing agents and soaps.

Adds moisturising and protective properties.

**WE DO NOT USE PALM OIL IN OUR PRODUCTS BECAUSE FORESTS ARE BEING CUT DOWN AND REPLACED WITH PALM GROVES**

Parabens

These are a group of chemically produced preservatives. Parabens are the most commonly used preservatives in skincare products but have been surrounded by controversy of late. There are chemicals that occur in nature with preservative properties and, although they cannot be harvested directly, we have chosen these for our products were use of a preservative is unavoidable.

**WE DO NOT USE PARABENS IN OUR PRODUCTS**

Patchouli

INCI Name: Pogostemon Patchouli

An essential oil obtained from the leaves. Main supplier is Indonesia.

Has a soft, earthy aroma. Tightens the skin and is therefore good for cracked, oily and mature skin.

Peppermint

INCI Name: Mentha Piperita

An essential oil obtained from the leaves. Main supplier is France.

Has a cooling and invigorating aroma. Excellent for inhaling when travelling.

Petitgrain

INCI Name: Citrus Aurantium

An essential oil obtained from the leaves of the Orange Tree. Main supplier is Paraguay.

Has a warm, citrus aroma with a hint of floral. Good for oily and dry skin and for treating acne.

Phenoxyethanol

INCI Name: Phenoxyethanol

Is an anti-bacterial agent and is used with Benzyl Alcohol and Potassium Sorbate to form a gentle and eco friendly preservative.

Pine

INCI Name: Pinus Pumilionissyn

An essential oil obtained from Pine needles. Main supplier is Austria.

Has a distinctive pine aroma with woody and herbaceous undertones. Strongly antiseptic. Effective in inhalations and in oil burners due to its cleansing and deodorising properties.

Potassium Sorbate

INCI Name: Potassium Sorbate

This forms part of the most eco-friendly preservative generally available along with Benzyl Alcohol and Phenoxyethanol. Potassium Sorbate occurs naturally and is a salt of Sorbic Acid. It is used to inhibit the development of moulds and yeasts in skin care products and foods. It is considered to be safe because of its long term safety record and non-toxic profile.

Preservatives

When water is used in a product it is vital to add preservatives in order to stop the growth of fungus and bacteria. Most commercial and cosmetic skin-care products use synthetically produced preservatives for example Methylisothiazolinone, Methylchloroisothiazolinone and parabens. These are known to cause skin reactions (allergens) and parabens have been found stored in the body.

When use of a preservative is unavoidable we use the most gentle and eco-friendly preservative generally available to us made up of a combination of Benzyl Alcohol, Phenoxyethanol and Potassium Sorbate. These compounds are all found in nature.

Prostaglandins

These 'Chemical Messengers' are found in every cell of our body & control a myriad of functions including body temperature, inflammation, dilation/constriction of blood vessels & so are key to keeping a healthy balance for our skin. They are not stored but are manufactured from Fatty Acids like Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA). A deficiency of Prostaglandins will result in dryness & loss of suppleness of the skin.

Q


R


Rose de Mai

INCI Name: Rosa Damascena

An essential oil obtained from the flower petals. Main supplier is Morocco.

Has a distinctive floral aroma. Good for dry and mature skin.

Rosehip Seed Oil

INCI Name: Rosa Mosqueta

Cold pressed from the rosehips (fruits).

Pure Rosehip oil is one of natures best kept secrets containing up to 80% essential fatty acids (40-60% Omega 6, 20-35% Omega 3, 10-20% Omega 9) which help maintain healthy skin.

This wonderful oil also contains natural Tretinoin, a derivative of Vitamin A (Retinol). Tretinoin is proven to aid cell regeneration which in turn helps delay the effects of skin aging and improves acne. It is very moisturising for dry skin & has been reported to reduce the effects of scarring, sun damage & stretch marks.

Rosemary

INCI Name: Rosmarinus Officinalis

An essential oil obtained from the leaves. Main supplier is Morocco.

Has a spicy, minty aroma. Is warming and good for bad circulation in the skin. Good for oily skin and acne. Also aids clear thinking so is often used to help students to focus when studying. Very good for mental fatigue and for tired, overworked muscles.

**DO NOT USE WHEN PREGNANT OR WHERE THERE IS HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE.**

S


Sage

INCI Name: Salvia Officinalis

An essential oil obtained from the leaves. Main supplier is France.

Has a sweet and herbaceous aroma. A warming oil good for muscle fatigue.

Sandalwood

INCI Name: Santalum Album

An essential oil obtained from the wood. Main supplier is India.

Has a sweet, woody aroma. Has antiseptic properties and is useful for dry and sensitive skin.

Shea Butter

INCI Name: Butyrospermum Parkii

Pressed out from the crushed stones of the Shea Tree. Main supplier is West Africa.

This is a white, stable fat with a mild smell. It helps skin heal quickly, protects the skin against dehydration and has a natural sun protection factor of 2-3.

Has mild anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. The melting point is 35-38ºC (the skin's temperature).

Sodium Chloride (common salt)

INCI Name: Sodium Chloride

Used as a thickening agent in shampoos and body soaps.

Excellent in detoxifying baths and as a Scrubbing/Exfoliating Agent.

Sodium Lauryl Sulphate (SLS)

An aggressive detergent that may upset the natural balance of the skin.

**WE DO NOT USE SLS IN OUR PRODUCTS**

Stearamidopropyl Dimethylamine

INCI Name: Stearamidopropyl Dimethylamine

An Emulsifier that is very ethical as it doesn't use solvents or chemicals. It is made from vegetable-based components. It is ideal for Hair Conditioners as it makes the hair very soft.

Sunflower Oil

INCI Name: Helianthus Annus

Cold pressed from the seeds. Main suppliers are Mexico, South America and Southern Europe.

This is a dry oil containing a high level of the Essential Fatty Acid Linolenic Acid (Omega 3). It is a good skin oil that spreads well and is absorbed relatively quickly. We used it in our massage oil and some creams.

T


Talc

INCI Name: Talc (Magnesium Silicate)

A fine, white powder used for various make-up products as well as a Baby Powder as it absorbs moisture and closes the skin's pores.

It is non-toxic and free from asbestos.

Tea Tree

INCI Name: Melaleuca Alternifolia

An essential oil obtained from the leaves. Main supplier is Australia.

Has a fresh, sharp and slightly woody aroma. Has anti-bacterial, antiseptic, anti-viral and anti-fungal properties and so is good for most types of skin problems.

Thistle Oil

INCI Name: Carthamus Tinctorius

Cold pressed from the seeds of the Thistle.

This is a dry, thin oil that is an excellent source of Essential Fatty Acids (Linoleic Acid which is used by the body to produce GLA as well as Omega 3 & 6).

Good for oily skin and all skin conditions.

U


V


Vetivert

INCI Name: Vetiveria Zizanioides

An essential oil obtained from the root. Main supplier is Madagascar.

Has an earthy, smoky aroma so is popular in men's Eau de Colognes. Has astringent properties and so is good for mature skin and will soften chapped and cracked skin.

Vitamin A

INCI Name: Retinol Palmitate

It is an antioxidant that nourishes the skin, counteracts inflammations and helps prevent skin disorders.

Vitamin A also protects against sunburn. In skin care, Vitamin A has a beneficial effect on dry, scaly skin and helps reduce wrinkles.

Vitamin C

INCI Name: Ascorbic Acid, Ascorbyl Phosphate

It is an excellent antioxidant that protects against sunburn and reduces pigmentation of the skin.

Vitamin E

INCI Name: *Tocopherol*

It is an antioxidant but its most important task in cosmetic products is to prevent Fats and Oils from going rancid.

When used in ointments and creams it helps heal cracks and sores in the skin.

Vitamins

Vitamins used for skin and hair care have 2 different purposes.

Firstly, as antioxidants they have an anti-aging effect on the skin as certain vitamins are naturally absorbed through the skin.

Secondly, they prevent Fats and Oils from going rancid either within the product itself or on the skin.

W


Wheatgerm Oil

INCI Name: Triticum Vulgare

Cold pressed from the wheatgerm of whole wheat.

This is a rich oil that is a natural Antioxidant high in Vitamin E.

Witch Hazel

INCI Name: Hamamelis Virginiana

A Hydrosol obtained from the leaves.

It is a strong antioxidant. Eases bites and stings.

X


Y


Ylang Ylang

INCI Name: Cananga Odorata

An essential oil obtained from the flowers. Main supplier is Madagascar.

Has a floral, spicy, slightly banana-scented aroma. Stabilises oil from the glands in the skin so is good for oily skin and acne.

Is a calming oil with romantic virtues.

Z